Under the Constitution Act of 1867, federal and provincial governments are at the same time responsible for immigration, although Ottawa is the top priority. Given the initially centralized form of federalism in Canada, it may seem surprising that provincial governments have been given the power to legislate on immigration. But as historian Robert Vineberg put it (in a 1987 article in the Canadian Public Administration), immigration has been a concern of colonial governments for more than a century and therefore “it made sense that all levels of an underpopulated agricultural country should be actively interested in immigration.” “information exchange agreement,” an agreement or agreement to exchange, disclose or collect personal data by electronic transmission, electronic data comparison or other means; 6.1.5 British Columbia can and will enter into agreements with other parties for transportation and recruitment: 20,000 economic refugees were expected to arrive through PNP in 2009, and Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) predicts that this could reach 40,000 in 2010. Provincial governments have a great deal of flexibility in setting criteria for selecting candidates, and programs have become very diverse. According to the 2009 Auditor General`s report, there were more than 50 different categories in the PNPs. With other changes in the immigration system, particularly the introduction of the Canadian experience class in 2008 (see Arthur Sweetman and Casey Warman`s article in this issue), provincial governments – as well as other actors such as employers and universities – now share the federal government`s control over the composition of immigration. 4.3 In developing its annual plan to implement Canada`s immigration plan, Canada will consider consultations and consider: 5.1.4 British Columbia will participate in multilateral consultation processes on the development or promotion of national immigration initiatives. The federal government, which was unwilling to copy the 1991 Canada-Quebec agreement, developed the Provincial Nominating Program (PNP) that would allow each province or territory to identify a limited number of economic migrants in order to meet specific regional needs and/or obtain priority attention for the treatment of immigration. The new programme is expected to be modest: 1,000 nominees were nominated in 1996. While these agreements are generally not news on the front page, they have become key elements of the Canadian immigration landscape. And while they have proven to be important instruments of innovation, results and public accountability need to be improved.

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